ACTFL/NCATE Standards Rubric
1 = Approaches Standard 2 = Meets Standard 3 = Exceeds Standard
STANDARD 1: Language, Linguistics, Comparisons
Standard 1.a. Demonstrating Language Proficiency. Candidates demonstrate a high level of proficiency in the target language, and they seek opportunities to strengthen their proficiency.
1.a.1. Interpersonal communication: Speaking
1 = Candidates speak at the Intermediate-High level on the ACTFL scale: they handle successfully uncomplicated tasks and social situations requiring an exchange of basic information related to work, school, recreation, and particular interests, though hesitation and errors may be evident; they handle the tasks pertaining to the Advanced level, but their performance of these tasks exhibit one or more features of breakdown such as the failure to maintain the narration or description syntactically in the appropriate time frame, the disintegration of connected discourse, the misuse of cohesive devices, a reduction in vocabulary, or a significant amount of hesitation; they are generally understood by native speakers unaccustomed to dealing with non-natives, although gaps in communication may occur.
2 = Candidates speak at the Advanced-Low level on the ACTFL scale: they participate actively in most informal and some formal conversations dealing with topics related to school, home, and leisure activities, and to a lesser degree, those related to events of work, current, public, and personal interest; they narrate and describe in present, past, and future time frames, but control of aspect may be lacking at times; they combine and link sentences into connected discourse of paragraph length; they handle appropriately a routine situation or familiar communicative task that presents a complication or unexpected turn of events; they are understood by native speakers unaccustomed to dealing with non-natives, even though this may be achieved only through repetition and restatement.
3 = Candidates speak at the "Advanced Mid" level on the ACTFL scale (or higher): they participate actively in most informal and some formal exchanges on a variety of concrete topics relating to work, school, home, and leisure activities, as well as to events of current, public, and personal interest; they narrate and describe in present, past ,and future time frames, by providing a full account, with good control of aspect; their narrations and descriptions relate relevant and supporting facts in connected, paragraph length discourse; they handle successfully and with ease a routine situation or familiar communicative task that presents a complication or unexpected turn of events; they are readily understood by native speakers unaccustomed to dealing with non-natives.
1.a.2. Interpersonal communication: Listening and Reading
1 = As listeners, candidates identify main ideas and most important details of the oral message, begin to move beyond literal comprehension, and identify either the author’s perspective(s) or cultural perspective(s). For readers of target languages that use a Roman alphabet, including classical languages, candidates identify main ideas and most important details, begin to move beyond literal comprehension, and identify either the author’s perspective(s) or cultural perspective (s).
2 = As listeners, candidates move beyond literal comprehension, infer the meaning of unfamiliar words and phrases in new contexts, infer and interpret the author’s intent, and offer a personal interpretation of the message. For readers of target languages that use a Roman alphabet, including classical languages, candidates move beyond literal comprehension, infer the meaning of unfamiliar words and phrases in new contexts, infer and interpret the author’s intent, and offer a personal interpretation of text.
3 = As listeners, candidates interpret the oral message on a number of levels, analyze it from a number of perspectives, and give a detailed personal interpretation of the text supported by a rich range of cultural knowledge. For readers of target languages that use a Roman alphabet, including classical languages, candidates interpret the text on a number of levels, analyze it from a number of perspectives, and give a detailed personal interpretation of the text supported by a rich range of cultural knowledge.
1.a.3. Presentational communication: Speaking
1 = Candidates deliver oral pre-planned presentations dealing with familiar topics. They speak using notes, and they often read verbatim. They may speak in strings of sentences using basic vocabulary. They often focus more on the content of the presentation rather than considering the audience.
2 = Candidates deliver oral presentations extemporaneously, without reading notes verbatim. Presentations consist of familiar literary and cultural topics and those of personal interest. They speak in connected discourse using a variety of time frames and vocabulary appropriate to the topic. They use extra linguistic support as needed to facilitate audience comprehension (e.g., visuals).
3 = Candidates deliver oral presentations on a wide variety of topics, including those of personal interest. They speak in extended discourse and use specialized vocabulary. They use a variety of strategies to tailor the presentation to the needs of their audience (e.g., circumlocution, selecting appropriate level of formality).
1.a.4. Interpersonal and Presentational Communication: Writing
1 = Candidates write at the Intermediate-High level on the ACTFL scale: they meet all practical writing needs (uncomplicated letters, simple summaries, compositions related to work, school, and topics of current and general interest); they connect sentences into paragraphs using a limited number of cohesive devices that tend to be repeated; they write simple descriptions and narrations of paragraph length on everyday events and situations in different time frames, although with some inaccuracies; their writing is generally comprehensible to natives not used to the writing of non-natives, but gaps in comprehension may occur.
2 = Candidates write at the Advanced-Low level on the ACTFL scale: they write routine social correspondence, they write about familiar topics by means of narratives, descriptions and summaries of a factual nature in major time frames with some control of aspect; they combine sentences in texts of paragraph length; they incorporate a limited number of cohesive devices; their writing demonstrates control of simple target-language sentence structures and partial control of more complex syntactic structures; their writing is understood by readers accustomed to the writing of second language learners although additional effort may be required in reading the text.
3 = Candidates write at the Advanced-Mid level on the ACTFL scale (or higher): they write straightforward summaries and write about familiar topics relating to interests and events of current, public, and personal relevance by means of narrative and descriptions of a factual nature; they describe and narrate in all major time frames; their writing includes some variety of cohesive devices in texts of several paragraphs in length; their writing demonstrates good control of the most frequently used syntactic structures; their writing is understood readily by natives not used to the writing of non-natives.
1.a.5. Dispositions for acquiring proficiency
1 = Candidates make minimal use of resources such as readings and the internet in order to access the target language world beyond the classroom.
2 = Candidates maintain and enhance their proficiency by interacting in the target language outside of the classroom, reading, and using technology to access target language communities.
3 = Candidates have developed a systematic approach for enhancing their language proficiency on an ongoing basis by using a variety of effective materials, methodologies, and technologies.
Standard 1.b. Understanding Linguistics. Candidates know the linguistic elements of the target language system, recognize the changing nature of language, and accommodate for gaps in their own knowledge of the target language system by learning on their own.
1 = Candidates recognize that the target language has different phonemes and allophones than those of their native languages. They describe how some of the target language sounds are articulated.
2 = Candidates identify phonemes and allophones of the target language. They understand the rules of the sound system of the target language. They diagnose their own target language pronunciation difficulties.
3 = Candidates describe the differences between the phonological systems of the target and their native languages. They can explain the rules of the sound system of the target language. They can explain their own target language pronunciation difficulties.
1 = Candidates recognize that languages have different ways in which morphemes (parts of words) are put together to form words.
2 = Candidates identify morphemes (affixes and stems) in the target language and describe how they are put together to form words. They recognize the meaning of new words by using morphological clues (e.g., word families).
3 = Candidates use strategies for identifying and using new words in the target language by recombining morphemes.
1 = Candidates recognize that the target language has specific syntactic patterns that may be similar to or different from the patterns of their native languages. Candidates view discourse as a string of sentences.
2 = Candidates describe syntactic patterns of the target language, such as formation of simple sentences and questions, and contrast them with those of their native languages. Candidates recognize key cohesive devices used in connected discourse (e.g., conjunctions, adverbs).
3 = Candidates identify ways in which syntactic patterns in the target language can be used to reflect nuances of meaning. Candidates identify and use various ways to create connected discourse in the target language.
1 = Candidates understand the literal meaning of words and sentences. Candidates often apply the semantic categories of their native languages to those of the target language.
2 = Candidates understand the inferred meaning of words and sentences as well as high-frequency idiomatic expressions. Candidates understand and identify semantic differences between their native language and the target language.
3 = Candidates understand the cultural meanings of words and sentences and of a variety of idiomatic expressions. Candidates describe the differences between the semantic systems of their native languages and the target language.
1.b.5. Rules for word and sentence formation
1 = Candidates recognize that the target language has a set of rules that govern the formation of words and sentences. They identify key regularities such as those that are characteristic of the verbal system, agreement, use of pronouns, prepositions or postpositions, word order, and interrogatives.
2 = Candidates explain the rules that govern the formation of words and sentences such as those pertaining to the verbal system, agreement, use of pronouns, prepositions and postpositions, word order, and interrogatives in terms of regularities and irregularities. They exemplify these rules with target language examples.
3 = Candidates provide detailed descriptions of the rules that govern the formation of words and sentences. They compare the rules of the target language and their native languages. They explain how word and sentence formation can be used to express nuances of meaning.
1.b.6. Discourse, sociolinguistic, and pragmatic knowledge
1 = Candidates are aware of the pragmatic and sociolinguistic features (e.g., politeness conventions, formal/informal forms of address) of target language discourse. They are aware of the target language features for creating coherence in extended spoken and printed texts.
2 = Candidates identify the pragmatic and sociolinguistic features (e.g., politeness conventions, formal/informal forms of address) of target language discourse. They identify target language features for creating coherence in extended spoken and printed texts.
3 = Candidates explain pragmatic and sociolinguistic features (e.g., politeness conventions, formal/informal forms of address) of target language discourse. They explain how these discourse features convey contextual and cultural meaning and how they vary based on setting, goal of communication, and participants. They explain target language features for creating coherence in extended spoken and printed texts.
1.b.7. Changing nature of language
1 = Candidates recognize that the target language changes over time. They rely on target language examples as presented in their instructional materials.
2 = Candidates identify key changes in the target language that have occurred over time (such as writing system, introduction of new words, spelling conventions, grammatical elements, etc.). They identify discrepancies that may exist between the target language of their instructional materials and contemporary usage.
3 = Candidates describe the system of changes that have occurred in the target language over time. They are familiar with contemporary target language usage.
1.b.8. Dispositions for accommodating for gaps in knowledge of target language system
1 = Candidates ask questions when they lack knowledge of specific aspects of the target language system.
2 = Candidates investigate the target language system and examples on their own when faced with specific aspects of the system with which they are not familiar.
3 = Candidates take courses and/or seek remedial help in order to accommodate for gaps in their knowledge of the target language system.
Standard 1.c. Identifying Language Comparisons. Candidates know the similarities and differences between the target language and other languages, identify the key differences in varieties of the target language, and seek opportunities to learn about varieties of the target language on their own.
1.c.1. Comparisons between target and other languages
1 = Candidates recognize that differences exist between the target and other languages.
2 = Candidates identify key differences between the target and other languages.
3 =Candidates use comparisons of target and other languages to systematically plan for language instruction.
1.c.2. Sociolinguistic variation
1 = Candidates recognize that varieties of the target language exist.
2 = Candidates identify key features of varieties of the target language in terms of gender and dialectal differences.
3 = Candidates describe the system of rules that govern differences among varieties of the target language and explain the factors that affect these differences such as geography, culture, politics, level of education, gender ,and social class.
3. Dispositions for learning about target language varieties
1 = Candidates learn target language varieties presented in courses.
2 = Candidates learn about target language varieties through interaction with native speakers outside of class and by accessing authentic target language samples through a variety of means such as technology.
3 = Candidates learn about target language varieties through experiences in immersion situations including study abroad.
STANDARD 2: Cultures, Literatures, Cross-Disciplinary Concepts
Standard 2.a. Demonstrating Cultural Understandings. Candidates demonstrate that they understand the connections among the perspectives of a culture and its practices and products.
2.a.1. Cultural knowledge
1 = Candidates cite examples of cultural practices, products, perspectives, but the examples reflect a cultural knowledge base that is still developing.
2 = Candidates cite key cultural perspectives and provide support through description of products and practices.
3 = Candidates view the target culture as a system in which cultural perspectives are reflected through practices and products.
2.a.2 Cultural experience
1 = Candidates’ experience with the target culture has been limited to travel/tourism or instruction.
2 = Candidates have spent planned time in a target culture or community so that they have personal experience to support academic study.
3 = Candidates interpretjournals or observations from cultural informants, which narrate or describe experiences in studying, living, or working in a target culture. Candidates also collect their own cultural observations from extended time in the target culture or, for native speakers, from their personal experiences growing up in a target culture.
2.a.3. Process of analyzing cultures
1 = Candidates rely on cultural analyses that are already available (in instructional materials) or are learned (information they have acquired through study and/or personal experiences).
2 = Candidates demonstrate that they can analyze and hypothesize about unfamiliar or unknown cultural issues. They use the framework of the foreign language standards or another cultural model to investigate hypotheses that arise from materials or events that contain cultural questions or assumptions.
3 = Candidates collect and use materials that pose significant cultural questions or that illustrate cultural changes. They use a cultural framework to keep abreast of the changing nature of culture and its cultural variations.
2.a.4. Integrating culture into instruction
1 = Candidates integrate into instruction discrete pieces of cultural information, either found in instructional materials or acquired through study and/or personal experiences. They expect students to learn discrete pieces of information about the target culture.
2 = Candidates use the standards framework or other cultural model to integrate culture into daily lessons and units of instruction. They engage students in exploring the products and practices that relate to specific perspectives of the target culture.
3 = Candidates use a systematic approach for integrating culture into instruction and/or they use culture as the content for language instruction. They give students the tools for analyzing ways in which cultural products, practices, and perspectives are connected in the target culture.
2.a.5. Dispositions for cultural learning
1 = Candidates base their cultural work on familiar and factual cultural content.
2 = Candidates integrate cultural insights with the target language in its communicative functions and content areas. They work to extend their knowledge of culture through independent work and interactions with native speakers.
3 = Candidates emphasize cultural concepts as they analyze and synthesize cultural information from authentic sources in various media and in relation to specific communities or audiences. They work to build a large repertoire of cultural knowledge and experiences.
Standard 2.b. Demonstrating Understanding of Literary and Cultural Texts and Traditions. Candidates recognize the value and role of literary and cultural texts and use them to interpret and reflect upon the perspectives of the target cultures over time.
2.b.1. Knowledge of literary and cultural texts
1 = Candidates are aware of major literary texts and have read excerpts, abridgments, or reviews of those works and authors.
2 = Candidates interpret literary texts that represent defining works in the target cultures. They identify themes, authors, historical style, and text types in a variety of media that the cultures deem important in understanding the traditions of the cultures.
3 = Candidates interpret and synthesize ideas and critical issues from literary and other cultural texts that represent the historical and contemporary works of a wide range of writers in a wide range of forms and media. They interpret from multiple viewpoints and approaches.
2.b.2. Integrating texts from literature and other media in instruction
1 = Candidates use literary and cultural texts as they accompany teaching plans in instructional materials, and they elicit a literal interpretation of them.
2 = Candidates select literary and cultural texts appropriate to age, interests, and proficiency level of their students. They integrate these texts into lessons, design activities that develop language competencies based on these texts, and engage students in interpreting their meaning and the cultural perspectives that they represent.
3 =Candidates systematically use literary and cultural texts as the basis for helping students to gain insights into the products, practices, and perspectives of the target culture(s), and to expand language competencies.
2.b.3. Dispositions toward exploring literatures and other texts and media
1 = Candidates use in their teaching the texts available in the instructional materials that support the curriculum.
2 = Candidates identify from their studies lists of texts they plan to use and adapt in their teaching. They enrich classroom content with texts and topics valued by the culture. These texts are taken from literature and other media.
3 = Candidates seek out age appropriate materials valued by the culture that represent literature, film, and media to expand the repertoire of texts they use in instruction.
Standard 2.c. Integrating Other Disciplines In Instruction. Candidates integrate knowledge of other disciplines into foreign language instruction and identify distinctive viewpoints accessible only through the target language.
2.c.1. Integration of other subject areas into language instruction
1 = Candidates integrate discrete pieces of information from other subject areas, usually as they appear in instructional materials.
2 = Candidates integrate concepts from other subject areas such as math, science, social studies, art, and music. They teach students strategies for learning this new content in the foreign language.
3 = Candidates implement a content-based approach to language instruction that is based on the integration of language and subject-area content.
2.c.2. Planning for cross-disciplinary instruction
1 = Candidates plan to integrate subject-area content by using resources that accompany instructional materials.
2 = Candidates collaborate with colleagues in making connections between language and other subject areas. They locate authentic resources appropriate to the age, grade level, program goals, and interests of their students.
3 = Candidates systematically plan for instruction with colleagues from other subject areas. They may do team-teaching in order to fully integrate instruction.
2.c.3. Dispositions for integrating other subject areas into language instruction
1 = Candidates’ philosophy of language teaching focuses primarily on language instruction, with minimal attention to other content areas.
2 = Candidates devote time to finding ways to integrate subject-area content and to locating authentic resources. They are willing to learn new content with students.
3 = Candidates create a community of learners within the classroom, in which the teacher and learners work together to acquire new information and perspectives across disciplines.
STANDARD 3: Language Acquisition Theories and Instructional Practices
Standard 3.a. Understanding Language Acquisition and Creating a Supportive Classroom. Candidates demonstrate an understanding of language acquisition at various developmental levels and use this knowledge to create a supportive classroom learning environment that includes target language input and opportunities for negotiation of meaning and meaningful interaction.
3.a.1. Language acquisition theories
1 = Candidates exhibit an awareness of the key concepts of language acquisition theories as they relate to K-12 learners at various developmental levels. They illustrate an ability to connect theory with practice. They show a growing awareness of the connection between student learning and the use of instructional strategies.
2 = Candidates exhibit an understanding of language acquisition theories, including the use of target language input, negotiation of meaning, interaction, and a supportive learning environment. They draw on their knowledge of theories, as they apply to K-12 learners at various developmental levels, in designing teaching strategies that facilitate language acquisition.
3 = Candidates exhibit ease and flexibility in applying language acquisition theories to instructional practice. They use a wide variety of strategies to meet the linguistic needs of their K-12 students at various developmental levels. Candidates exhibit originality in the planning, creation and implementation of instructional strategies that reflect language acquisition theories.
3.a.2. Target language input
1 = Candidates use the target language for specific parts of classroom lessons at all levels of instruction, but avoid spontaneous interaction with students in the target language. They use some strategies to help students understand oral and written input.
2 = Candidates use the target language to the maximum extent in classes at all levels of instruction. They designate certain times for spontaneous interaction with students in the target language. They tailor language use to students’ developing proficiency levels. They use a variety of strategies to help students understand oral and written input. They use the target language to design content-based language lessons.
3 = Candidates structure classes to maximize use of the target language at all levels of instruction. A key component of their classes is their spontaneous interaction with students in the target language. They assist students in developing a repertoire of strategies for understanding oral and written input. They use the target language to teach a variety of subject matter and cultural content.
3.a.3. Negotiation of meaning
1 = Since most classroom interaction is planned, candidates do not regularly negotiate meaning with students. They teach students some expressions in the target language for negotiating meaning, such as “Could you repeat that, please?”
2 = Candidates negotiate meaning with students when spontaneous interaction occurs. They teach students a variety of ways to negotiate meaning with others and provide opportunities for them to do so in classroom activities.
3 = Negotiation of meaning is an integral part of classroom interaction. Candidates negotiate meaning regularly with students. They teach students to integrate negotiation of meaning strategies into their communication with others.
3.a.4. Meaningful classroom interaction
1 = Candidates use communicative activities as the basis for engaging students in meaningful classroom interaction. These activities and meaningful contexts are those that occur in instructional materials.
2 = Candidates design activities in which students will have opportunities to interact meaningfully with one another. The majority of activities and tasks are standards-based and have meaningful contexts that reflect curricular themes and students’ interests.
3 = Meaningful classroom interaction is at the heart of language instruction. Candidates engage students in communicative and interesting activities and tasks on a regular basis. All classroom interaction reflects engaging contexts that are personalized to the interests of students and reflect curricular goals.
3.a.5. Dispositions for creating a supportive classroom environment
1 = Candidates employ exercises and activities that require students to provide predictable and/or correct answers. Candidates assume a traditional role of teacher as director of learning. The feedback that candidates offer students is primarily evaluative in nature and focuses on the accuracy of their language. Candidates encourage students to progress within the framework of instructional materials.
2 = Candidates employ exercises and activities that require students to provide open-ended, personalized responses. Candidates often assume the role of facilitator in classroom activities. Some activities provide opportunities for them to learn with their students. Candidates provide feedback to students that focuses on meaning as well as linguistic accuracy. They view errors as a normal part of the language acquisition process. Candidates employ strategies to encourage and affirm student progress. Candidates encourage students to take risks in using the target language.
3 = Candidates use an approach in which personalized, creative language use is central to all activities. The principal role of the candidate is as facilitator of learning in the language classroom. Candidates value opportunities to learn with their students. Candidates engage students in monitoring their own progress and in asking for assistance from the teacher. They engage students in tracking their own errors and their progress and in providing feedback to their peers. Candidates reward students for taking risks in using the target language.
Standard 3.b. Developing Instructional Practices That Reflect Language Outcomes and Learner Diversity. Candidates develop a variety of instructional practices that reflect language outcomes and articulated program models and address the needs of diverse language learners.
3.b.1. Theories of learner development and instruction
1 = Candidates recognize that K-12 students have different physical, cognitive, emotional, and social developmental characteristics. Candidates recognize the need to tailor instruction to accommodate their students’ developmental needs. They are aware that many different instructional models and techniques exist.
2 = Candidates describe the physical, cognitive, emotional, and social developmental characteristics of K-12 students. They implement a variety of instructional models and techniques to accommodate these differences.
3 = Candidates plan for instruction according to the physical, cognitive, emotional, and social developmental needs of their K-12 students. They tailor instruction to meet the developmental needs of their students.
3.b.2. Understanding of relationship of articulated program models to language outcomes
1 = Candidates recognize that different foreign language program models (e.g., FLES, immersion) exist and lead to different language outcomes.
2 = Candidates describe how foreign language program models (e.g., FLES, immersion) lead to different language outcomes.
3 = Candidates design and/or implement specific foreign language program models that lead to different language outcomes.
3.b.3. Adapting instruction to address students’ language levels, language backgrounds, learning styles
1 = Candidates recognize that their students have a wide range of language levels, language backgrounds, and learning styles. They attempt to address these differences by using a limited variety of instructional strategies.
2 = Candidates seek out information regarding their students’ language levels, language backgrounds, and learning styles. They implement a variety of instructional models and techniques to address these student differences.
3 = Candidates consistently use information about their students’ language levels, language backgrounds, and learning styles to plan for and implement language instruction.
3.b.4. Adapting instruction to address students’ multiple ways of learning
1 = Candidates recognize that students approach language learning in a variety of ways. They identify how individual students learn.
2 = Candidates identify multiple ways in which students learn when engaged in language classroom activities.
3 = Candidates plan for and implement a variety of instructional models and strategies that accommodate different ways of learning.
3.b.5. Adapting instruction to meet students’ special needs
1 = Candidates identify special needs of their students, including cognitive, physical, linguistic, social, and emotional needs. They recognize that they may need to adapt instruction to meet these special needs.
2 = Candidates implement a variety of instructional models and techniques that address specific special needs of their students.
3 = Candidates anticipate their students’ special needs by planning for alternative classroom activities as necessary.
3.b.6. Critical thinking and problem solving
1 = Candidates implement activities that have a limited number of answers and allow little room for critical thinking and/or problem solving.
2 = Candidates implement activities that promote critical thinking and problem-solving skills.
3 = Candidates reward their students for engaging in critical thinking and problem solving.
1 = Candidates teach primarily with large-group instruction. Pair and small group activities generally consist of students grouped together but working individually.
2 = Candidates conduct activities in which students work collaboratively in pairs and small groups. They define and model the task, give a time limit and expectations for follow-up, group students, assign students roles, monitor the task, and conduct a follow up activity.
3 = Candidates provide regular opportunities for students to work collaboratively in pairs and small-groups. They teach their students strategies for assuming roles, monitoring their progress in the task, and evaluating their performance at the end of the task.
3.b.8. Use of questioning and tasks
1 = Candidates use short answer questioning as the primary strategy for eliciting language from students.
2 = Candidates recognize that questioning strategies and task-based activities serve different instructional objectives. They use tasks as they appear in their instructional materials.
3 = Candidates have an approach to planning and instruction that integrates the appropriate design and use of both questioning strategies and task-based activities, based on instructional objectives and the nature of language use that they want to elicit from students.
3.b.9. Dispositions about student diversity
1 = Candidates adapt instruction to address students’ needs when they are given specific instructions of how to do so.
2 = Candidates seek out opportunities to learn about their students, their backgrounds, and their special needs. They adapt instruction to address students’ needs.
3 = Candidates value diversity in their classrooms. They work with students, parents, colleagues, and others to address the special needs of their students.
STANDARD 4: Integration Of Standards Into Curriculum and Instruction
Standard 4.a. Understanding and Integrating Standards In Planning. Candidates demonstrate an understanding of the goal areas and standards of the Standards for Foreign Language Learning and their state standards, and they integrate these frameworks into curricular planning.
4.a.1. Understanding of goal areas and standards
1 = Candidates name the goal areas and standards of the Standards for Foreign Language Learning, and identify the similarities between their state and national foreign language standards.
2 = Candidates describe how the goal areas and standards (both national and state) are addressed in instructional materials and/or classroom activities.
3 = Candidates use the national and state foreign language standards as a rationale for the significance of language study.
4.a.2. Integration of standards into planning
1 = Candidates apply goal areas and standards (both national and state) to their planning to the extent that their instructional materials do so.
2 = Candidates create unit/lesson plan objectives that address specific goal areas and standards (national and state). They design activities and/or adapt instructional materials and activities to address specific standards.
3 = Candidates use the goal areas and standards of the Standards for Foreign Language Learning, as well as their state standards, to design curriculum and unit/lesson plans.
4.a.3. Dispositions for integrating standards into planning
1 = Candidates apply national and state standards to their planning to the extent that they are explicitly integrated in their instructional materials.
2 = Candidates integrate national and state standards into their curricular planning, even if their instructional materials are not standards-based.
3 = Candidates articulate a rationale for using national and state standards as the basis for curriculum development.
Standard 4.b. Integrating Standards in Instruction. Candidates integrate the Standards for Foreign Language Learning and their state standards into language instruction.
4.b.1. Overall integration of standards into instruction
1 = Candidates conduct activities that address specific goal areas and standards of the Standards for Foreign Language Learning and their state standards to the extent that their instructional materials include a connection to standards.
2 = Candidates adapt exercises and activities as necessary to address specific goal areas and standards of the Standards for Foreign Language Learning and their state standards.
3 = The goal areas and standards of the Standards for Foreign Language Learning and/or their state standards are the focus of all classroom activities.
4.b.2. Integration of three modes of communication
1 = Candidates understand the connection among the interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational modes of communication. They focus on one mode at a time in instruction and classroom activities.
2 = Candidates design opportunities for their students to communicate by using the interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational modes in an integrated manner.
3 = Candidates use the interpersonal, interpretive, presentational framework as the basis for planning and implementing classroom communication.
4.b.3. Integration of cultural products, practices, perspectives
1 = Candidates understand the anthropological view of culture in terms of products, practices, and perspectives. They refer to one or more of these areas in their teaching of culture.
2 = Candidates design opportunities for their students to explore the target language culture(s) by means of cultural products, practices, and perspectives.
3 = Candidates use the products, practices, perspectives framework as the basis for planning and implementing cultural instruction.
4.b.4. Connections to other subject areas
1 = Candidates make connections to other subject areas as these connections are made in their instructional materials.
2 = Candidates plan for and design opportunities for their students to learn about other subject areas in the foreign language. They obtain information about other subject areas from colleagues who teach those subjects.
3 = Candidates design a content-based curriculum and collaborate with colleagues from other subject areas. They assist their students in acquiring new information from other disciplines in the foreign language.
4.b.5. Connections to target- language communities
1 = Candidates help their students to connect with target-language communities through the use of videos that accompany their instructional materials and/or native speaker presentations in the classroom.
2 = Candidates provide opportunities for their students to connect to target language communities through a variety of means such as technology and authentic materials.
3 = Candidates use connections to target-language communities as a key component of their planning and instruction.
4.b.6. Dispositions for integrating standards into instruction
1 = Candidates integrate goal areas and standards into instruction only if they are explicitly integrated in their instructional materials.
2 = Candidates design and implement activities that are standards-based, even if their instructional materials and curriculum are not standards based. They acquire knowledge and skills to be able to do this.
3 = Candidates use the goal areas and standards to drive language instruction. They participate in professional development activities to enhance their knowledge and expertise with standards.
Standard 4.c. Selecting and Designing Instructional Materials. Candidates use standards and curricular goals to evaluate, select, design, and adapt instructional resources.
4.c.1. Evaluation, selection, creation of standards-based materials
1 = Candidates base their selection and design of materials on short-term instructional objectives more than on standards and/or curricular goals.
2 = Candidates use their knowledge of standards and curricular goals to evaluate, select, and design materials, including visuals, realia, authentic printed and oral materials, and other resources obtained through technology.
3 = Candidates base their selection and design of materials on the standards philosophy and their curricular goals. They creatively use a wealth of resources including visuals, realia, authentic printed and oral materials, and other resources obtained through technology. They justify the use of these materials.
4.c.2. Use of authentic materials
1 = Candidates primarily use materials created for formal classroom use.
2 = Candidates identify and integrate authentic materials into classroom activities (e.g., tape recorded news broadcasts and talk shows, magazine and newspaper articles, literary selections, videotaped talk shows, realia). They help students to acquire strategies for understanding and interpreting authentic texts.
3 = Candidates use authentic materials to plan for and deliver instruction. They implement a variety of classroom activities based on authentic materials. They engage students in acquiring new information by exploring authentic texts.
4.c.3. Adaptation of materials
1 = Candidates use instructional materials as they have been developed commercially.
2 = Candidates adapt materials as necessary to reflect standards-based goals and instruction when materials fall short.
3 = An integral part of candidates' planning is to adapt materials to make standards-based learning more effective.
4.c.4. Dispositions for locating resources and creating materials
1 = Candidates use instructional materials that are readily available.
2 = Candidates locate additional resources that enhance topics/themes in the curriculum.
3 = Candidates plan to address standards through appropriate materials. They seek out appealing resources from which to create materials.
STANDARD 5: Assessment Of Languages and Cultures
Standard 5.a. Knowing assessment models and using them appropriately.
Candidates believe that assessment is ongoing, and they demonstrate knowledge of multiple ways of assessment that are age- and level-appropriate by implementing purposeful measures.
5.a.1. Formative and summative assessment models
1 = Candidates recognize the purposes of formative and summative assessments as set forth in prepared testing materials.
2 = Candidates design formative assessments to measure achievement within a unit of instruction and summative assessments to measure achievement at the end of a unit or chapter.
3 = Candidates design a system of formative and summative assessments that measure overall development of proficiency in an ongoing manner and at culminating points in the total program.
5.a.2. Interpretive communication
1 = Candidates use interpretive assessments found in instructional materials prepared by others. The reading/listening materials with which they work tend to be those prepared for pedagogical purposes.
2 = Candidates design performance assessments that measure students’ abilities to comprehend and interpret authentic oral and written texts from the target cultures. The assessments they design and use encompass a variety of response types from forced choice to open-ended.
3 = Candidates design assessment procedures that encourage students to interpret oral and printed texts of their choice. Many of these involve students’ developing of self assessment skills to encourage independent interpretation.
5.a.3. Interpersonal communication
1 = Candidates use interpersonal assessment measures found in instructional materials prepared by others.
2 = Candidates design performance assessments that measure students’ abilities to negotiate meaning as listeners/speakers and as readers/writers in an interactive mode. Assessments focus on tasks at students’ levels of comfort but pose some challenges.
3 = Candidates have had training or experience conducting and rating interpersonal assessments that have been developed according to procedures that assure reliability such as the MOPI (modified oral proficiency interview) or state-designed instruments.
5.a.4. Presentational communication
1 = Candidates use presentational assessment measures found in instructional materials prepared by others.
2 = Candidates design and use assessments that capture how well students speak and write in planned contexts. The assessments focus on the final products created after a drafting process and look at how meaning is conveyed in culturally appropriate ways. They create and use effective holistic and/or analytical scoring methods.
3 = Candidates create presentational tasks that develop students’ abilities to self-assess which includes self-correction and revision in terms of audience, style, and cultural context. They encourage students to write or to speak on topics of interest to the students.
5.a.5. Cultural perspectives
1 = Candidates assess isolated cultural facts.
2 = Candidates devise assessments that allow students to apply the cultural framework to authentic documents. Student tasks include identifying the products, practices, and perspectives embedded in those documents.
3 = Candidates design assessments of problem solving tasks in content areas of interest to students and possibly on topics not familiar to the teacher.
5.a.6. Integrated communication assessments
1 = Candidates recognize that assessments can lead students from one mode of communication to another (e.g., a reading task to a written letter to a discussion), but they tend to score the subsets of skills.
2 = Candidates utilize existing standards-based performance assessments(e.g., integrated performance assessments), that allow students to work through a series of communicative tasks on a particular theme (e.g., wellness, travel). They are able to evaluate performance in a global manner.
3 = Candidates design standards-based performance assessments for their students based upon models available in the literature or from professional organizations.
5.a.7. Dispositions toward global assessments
1 = Candidates cite the role of performance assessment in the classroom and attempt to measure performances. They rely more on assessments that are discrete point in nature or feature right-answer responses.
2 = Candidates assess what students know and are able to do by using and designing assessments that capture successful communication and cultural understandings. They commit the effort necessary to measure end performances.
3 = Candidates design assessments for which the results can be used to improve teaching and track student learning.
Standard 5.b. Reflecting on assessment. Candidates reflect on the results of student assessments, adjust instruction accordingly, analyze the results of assessments, and use success and failure to determine the direction of instruction.
1 = Candidates interpret assessments as correct/incorrect student responses even when reflecting upon holistic measures.
2 = Candidates observe and analyze the results of student performances so as to discern both global success and underlying inaccuracies.
3 = Candidates teach students to reflect upon their performances in both a global and analytical fashion.
5.b.2. Adjusting instruction
1 = Candidates use assessment results to conduct whole group remediation or review.
2 = Candidates use insights gained from assessing student performances to adapt, change, and reinforce instruction.
3 = Candidates use assessment results as they work with students individually to help them identify the gaps in their knowledge and skills.
5.b.3. Dispositions for incorporating and reflecting on assessment
1 = Candidates use assessments that can be scored quickly and mechanically. Assessment is viewed as an end in and of itself.
2 = Candidates incorporate what they have learned from assessments and show how they have adjusted instruction. The commitment to do this is established in their planning.
3 = Candidates design assessments and use results to improve teaching and student learning.
Standard 5.c. Reporting assessment results. Candidates interpret and report the results of student performances to all stakeholders and provide opportunity for discussion.
5.c.1. Interpreting and reporting progress to students
1 = Candidates report student progress in terms of grades, scores, and information on discrete aspects of language or cultural facts.
2 = Candidates interpret and report accurately the progress students are making in terms of language proficiency and cultural knowledge. They use the performances to illustrate both what students can do and how they can advance.
3 = Candidates identify ways of involving students in understanding testing procedures and scoring mechanisms so that students gain confidence in self-assessment and in planning for personal growth.
5.c.2. Communicating with stakeholders
1 = Candidates identify the stakeholders and their roles and interests in assessment of student progress.
2 = Candidates report student progress to students and parents. They use appropriate terminology and share examples that illustrate student learning.
3 = Candidates communicate to audiences in the schools and community how assessment reflects language proficiency and cultural experiences.
5.c.3. Dispositions for reporting assessment results
1 = Candidates find short-cut ways to report assessment results.
2 = Candidates report assessment results accurately and clearly.
3 = Candidates report assessment results in a way that is tailored to particular groups of stakeholders.
STANDARD 6: Professionalism
Standard 6.a. Engaging in Professional Development. Candidates engage in professional development opportunities that strengthen their own linguistic and cultural competence and promote reflection on practice.
6.a.1. Awareness of professional community
1 = Candidates identify appropriate professional communities.
2 = Candidates identify and participate in at least one professional organization.
3 = Candidates identify and participate in multiple professional communities.
6.a.2. Life-long commitment to professional growth
1 = Candidates articulate the need for ongoing professional development.
2 = Candidates identify immediate professional development needs.
3 = Candidates outline a process for identifying ongoing professional development needs and the potential providers (e.g., state organization) to meet these needs.
6.a.3. Reflection as a critical tool for growth
1 = Candidates recognize the potential of reflection and research as essential tools for becoming an effective practitioner. They rely on others’ questions to frame reflection.
2 = Candidates frame their own reflection and research questions and show evidence of engaging in a reflective process to improve teaching and learning.
3 = Candidates systematically engage in a reflective process for analyzing student work and planning future instruction. They identify possibilities of classroom-based research to inform practice.
6.a.4. Dispositions for seeking professional growth
1 = Candidates often respond to the suggestions that others make regarding candidates’ own professional growth.
2 = Candidates seek opportunities for professional growth.
3 = Candidates develop a plan for their continued professional growth.
Standard 6.b. Knowing the Value of Foreign Language Learning. Candidates know the value of foreign language learning to the overall success of all students and understand that they will need to become advocates with students, colleagues, and members of the community to promote the field.
6.b.1. Development of a rationale for foreign language learning
1 = Candidates realize the importance of developing a rationale that supports foreign language learning.
2 = Candidates develop a rationale that includes key benefits of foreign language learning.
3 = Candidates develop and articulate a rationale for foreign language learning that includes the cognitive, academic, and affective benefits to students and society.
6.b.2. Accessing and employing data to support foreign language learning
1 = Candidates identify the main data sources (both print and online) for accessing foreign language-specific data.
2 = Candidates choose appropriate data sources to develop products in support of foreign language learning for designated audiences.
3 = Candidates access multiple sources of data and synthesize findings to prepare a coherent rationale for foreign language learning for diverse audiences.
6.b.3. The importance of building alliances for advocacy
1 = Candidates understand the importance of networks and the role they play in advocacy efforts.
2 = Candidates provide evidence of the importance of building alliances to advocate for K-12 foreign language learning.
3 = Candidates demonstrate evidence that they have initiated efforts to collaborate with colleagues and other stakeholders to advocate for K-12 foreign language learning.
6.b.4. Dispositions regarding the value of K-12 language study
1 = Candidates believe that foreign language study benefits mostly a particular group of students.
2 = Based on readings and field experiences, candidates believe that all students should have opportunities to learn a foreign language.
3 = Candidates advocate for K-12 foreign language opportunities for all students